This quote from the novel Lost Illusions Balzac wrote between 1837 and 1843, when the advent of the railroad and social transformation that accompanies it, is sufficient in itself to summarize the spirit of this editorial trilogy . If Balzac was still with us today, he would no doubt have stigmatized the “phenomenon” Internet to complete his masterpiece, The Human Comedy. Because everything here converges the essential themes that have shaped for thirty years Balzac’s novels will to power, society, money, careerism, the only passion mischief. […] So he combines economic and financial power to “eagle” royal animal that embodies high thinking, but the bird of prey nature implies a willingness to inflexible and consuming power. These “Eagles”, which as at the time of the railway mania in the 1840s, were originally from 1998 to March 2000, this “irrational exuberance” that was to retrieve want without waiting for the promised riches by this emerging sector. […]
The “beef” Finally, a symbol of quiet strength, calmness, power work and sacrifice, Balzac readily associated with the smaller characters in his novels, like David Sechard, dedicated printer, despite its real talent inventor, to the cause of his friend Lucien de Rubempre, and through which is ensured the continuity of life and social progress.
In fact, as at the time of the railway mania […], the Internet has unleashed passions and saw grow and explode a large bubble. As then, finally, the fever of years lead to a serious economic crisis, financial and industrial, which, do not doubt, the Internet and the information technology sector will emerge strengthened in the medium and long term.
The 12 key ideas developed in the episodes I, II and III of the Eagle, beef and e-business
Internet is not an isolated phenomenon but represents the highest form of revolution of information technology born around 1970 in the “Silicon Valley” through the convergence of progress and technological innovations made in the sectors microelectronics, computers and telecommunications. These advances and innovations were the foundations of the technological system in which we “rushed” in the 1990s and have trained well for thirty years, a series of breaks in the material foundations of our economy, our culture and our society.
The major event is the Internet is since the mid-1990s the universal platform for the convergence of IT and telecommunications, and it assumes, therefore, of critical importance to the development of the sector information technology and the new activities. The adoption of TCP / IP as the global standard for communication and interconnection is the origin of a series of radical changes in the sector, through three key stages: 1995-1999, the advent of Dotcom, the explosion of technology start-ups and the crystallization of the information technology industry around the “Internet Protocol, 2000, the bursting of the” Internet bubble “and return to the fundamentals of the real economy; 2001: the outbreak of the economic crisis, the most severe financial and industrial history of the information technology sector.
The only certainty we have today is that the industry now has a central place in the economy. It is therefore vital that the industry manages to meet the major challenges that will allow it to resume growth and profits for medium and long term:
– Replace the “client” in the heart of its organization in moving from mass production of standardized goods and services to a customization, flexible and responsive.
– Propose tenders for innovative business models based on outsourcing.
– Know invent new business models of these offers to promote their dissemination throughout the French industrial and commercial fabric and not just among 5,000 medium and large companies that now constitute 80% of turnover the “ICT”.
The revolution in information technology has contributed to the emergence a new economy called “informational and overall” informational because the productivity and competitiveness of units or agents in this economy fundamentally depends on their ability to generate, process and apply effective information based on knowledge; Overall, because the key activities of production, consumption and distribution, as well as their components (capital, labor, raw material management, information, technology, market) are organized on a global scale, either directly or through a network of links between economic agents.
The new organizational form of business in this informational / global economy is now called “network”, that is to say, a company that has adopted an organization enabling him to generate knowledge and process information , faster, more efficiently and at the best price; to adapt to the variable geometry of the global economy; to be flexible enough to change his ways as quickly as objectives evolve under the impact of rapid technological and institutional cultural transformations; and innovate, innovation become the key to competitiveness weapon in a highly competitive world.
Internet has become in recent years, both a powerful driving force of the globalization movement and a fantastic new integration vector collection processes, processing and transmission of information in the informational / global economy. The power of this Internet revolution has its acceptance as a global standard which now allows companies to communicate the various hardware, software and networks of their information systems in heterogeneous environments.
If the company network is the organizational form of the informational / global economy, e-business is in its operational form. Thanks to e-business, the company may finally be networked all its exchanges by the electronic interconnection of its technology platform with those of his relationship five poles. Increased opportunities for collaboration offered by new Internet technologies allow companies, from the initial value of raw materials and other inputs (including knowledge) to create more value in the various stages of processing, manufacturing , storage, transportation and marketing of their products and services, with the ultimate goal to provide superior value to the customer.
The organizational and operational revolution induced by the implementation of e-business in companies is based primarily on the technological revolution initiated by Internet in their information system. This technological revolution is the necessary migration of these systems, today owners and independent, to open systems, synonyms interoperability and universality, able to interconnect with each other. The new principles and procedures of these systems relieve infrastructure, facilitate process automation, improve individual productivity, strengthen strategic decisions and allow companies to focus on their heart business while enjoying a quality service top, a Master of efficient costs and enhanced security.
This new organizational and operational form is ultimately the only chance for businesses to survive and grow in an informational / global economy continues to expand and to become a little more each day. Unfortunately, if the 2000 largest French companies have already started the e-business corner, this is far from the case of the 2.4 million SMEs that form the core of our economic fabric and industrial. Yet at a time when there is a strong de-industrialization of France and where the competitiveness of the national economy fell from 12th place in 1992 to 25th place in 2000, not the vivacity of our fabric and TPE SMEs as agents of innovation and training and as a source of job creation and productivity has been more important. And so until the late 1990s, no serious study has yet been able to demonstrate the impact of computerization of companies on the productivity of the economy, no more little dispute productivity gains and competitiveness achieved thanks to the intensive use of information technology in general and the Internet in particular.
Five main obstacles are slowing down the diffusion and integration of information technologies in the French industry and commerce:
– A cultural brake, IT is often experienced by business leaders as a constraint to development and a cost center.
– An organizational brake, the entrepreneur often the only decision maker in terms of technology investment and not having the material time to identify the most suitable offers to its needs and to implement the required solutions.
– An infrastructure brake, the e-business based primarily on opportunities for companies to benefit from high-speed access to Internet permanent, efficient and economical, which is not the case today.
– A commercial brake, manufacturers of information technology do not benefit from the distribution network adapted to the specificities of small and medium enterprises.
In this context, dissemination and integration of new Internet technologies in the French industry and commerce will be based primarily on three key success factors:
– The State: it must steer the economy in a new direction by funding major reforms and major projects favoring the development of broadband in France and spread of Internet technology.
– The employers’ organizations, consular and professionals: they are accompanied by joint, coordinated and synergistic their members or their nationals in their required organizational and operational migration to e-business.
– Industrial sector: they will have to adapt to the specific cultural and economic constraints of each business by deploying customized and outsourced solutions. In this they should contribute to the emergence of innovative prescription and distribution channels, based on the “knowledge brokering” and more control over “syndrome obsolescence” inherent in the proliferation of technological advances and announcement effects that blur the signals and often immerse customers in total disarray.
These new “infomediary” could for example take the form of companies turning to structured communities of interest around chains and whose activity is to offer products and information services, decision-making, personalized transactional and Technological online: PCIS (Community Integrated Services Portals). Given their technological platform and the “Portal” single interface they offer their customers, they would be both the best guides businesses in their e-business transformation and the best prescribers and / or resellers and / integrators or new e-business solutions. That they are offered on a mode of outsourcing or a traditional mode of marketing in the context of specific agreements negotiated with the industrialists of “ICT” sector: dedicated intranet, virtual desktop, applications, rental and online services, providing storage and remote security, “IP” Centrex, broadband infrastructure, workstation, virtual private network … the venture capital market french being damaged, funding will be provided both through support the state, employers, professional and consular organizations in the framework of joint aid and shared devices and industrial of information technology that will contribute in one way or another in all the initiatives promoting the emergence of new growth.